Satay, or sate, is a dish of marinated, skewered and grilled meats, served with a sauce. Satay may consist of diced or sliced chicken, goat, mutton, beef, pork, fish, tofu, or other meats; the more authentic version uses skewers from the midrib of the coconut palm frond, although bamboo skewers are often used. These are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, then served with various spicy seasonings.
Satay may have originated in Java or Sumatra, Indonesia. Satay is available almost anywhere in Indonesia, where it has become a national dish. 

Satay is a very popular delicacy in Indonesia; Indonesia’s diverse ethnic groups’ culinary art (see Cuisine of Indonesia) have produced a wide variety of satays. In Indonesia, satay can be obtained from a travelling satay vendor, from a street-side tent-restaurant, in an upper-class restaurant, or during traditional celebration feasts. 

Turmeric is a compulsory ingredient used to marinate satay, which gives the dish its characteristic yellow colour. Meats commonly used include beef, mutton, pork, venison, fish, shrimp, squid, chicken, rabbit and even tripe. Some have also used more exotic meats, such as turtle, crocodile, horse, lizard, and snake meat.

Satay may be served with a spicy peanut sauce dip, or peanut gravy, slivers of onions and cucumbers, and ketupat (rice cakes).

Pork satay can be served in a pineapple-based satay sauce or cucumber relish. An Indonesian version uses a soy-based dip.Contents.


Satay was supposedly invented by Javanese street vendors, based on satay becoming popular after the influx of Arab immigrants in the early 19th century. The satay meats used by Indonesians and Malaysians, mutton and beef, are also favoured by Arabs and are not as popular in China as are pork and chicken. Another theory states that the word satay is derived from the Minnan-Chinese words sa tae bak meaning three pieces of meat.[citation needed] However this theory is discounted since traditional satay often consist of four pieces meats.

Sate Ponorogo being grilled in a foodstall in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia

Sate Padang vendor in Batam, Indonesia

Sate Padang with yellow sauce.

Sate buntel, minced goat meat wrapped in membrane, Solo, Central Java

Balinese Nasi campur with sate lilit.

A street-side chicken satay seller near Borobudur, Central Java.

Horse satay, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Indonesian Chinese version of Nasi Campur with pork satay

Quail eggs satay and chicken liver-intestine satay

Known as sate in Indonesian (and pronounced similar to the English), Indonesia is the home of satay, and satay is a widely renowned dish in almost all regions of Indonesia and is considered the national dish. Satays, in particular, are a staple in Indonesian cuisine, served everywhere from street carts to fine dining establishments, as well as in homes and at public gatherings.As a result, many variations have been developed throughout the Indonesian Archipelago. The satay variants in Indonesia usually named after the region its originated, the meats, parts or ingredients its uses, also might named after the process or method of cooking.

Sate Madura
Originating on the island of Madura, near Java, is a famous variant among Indonesians. Most often made from mutton or chicken, the recipe's main characteristic is the black sauce made from Indonesian sweet soy sauce/kecap manis mixed with palm sugar (called gula jawa or "javanese sugar" in Indonesia), garlic, deep fried shallots, peanut paste, petis (a kind of shrimp paste), candlenut/kemiri, and salt. Chicken Madura satay is usually served in peanut sauce, while the mutton Madura satay is usually served in sweet soy sauce. Sate Madura uses thinner chunks of meat than other variants. It is eaten with rice or rice cakes wrapped in banana/coconut leaves (lontong/ketupat). Raw thinly sliced shallot and plain sambal are often served as condiments

Sate Padang
A dish from Padang and the surrounding area in West Sumatra, which is made from cow or goat offal boiled in spicy broth then grilled. Its main characteristic is a yellow sauce made from rice flour mixed with spicy offal broth, turmeric, ginger, garlic, coriander, galangal root, cumin, curry powder and salt. It is further separated into two sub-variants, the Pariaman and the Padang Panjang, which differ in taste and the composition of their yellow sauces.

Sate Ponorogo
A variant of satay originating in Ponorogo, a town in East Java. It is made from sliced marinated chicken meat, and served with a sauce made of peanuts and chilli sauce and Garnished with shredded shallots, sambal (chili paste) and lime juice. This variant is unique for the fact that each skewer contains one large piece of chicken, rather than several small slices. The meat is marinated in spices and sweet soy sauce, in a process called "bacem" and is served with rice or lontong (rice cake).. The grill is made from terracotta earthenware with a hole in one side to allow ventilation for the coals. After three months of use, the earthenware grill disintegrates, and must be replaced.

Sate Tegal
A sate of a yearling or five month old lamb; the nickname for this dish in Tegal balibul is an acronym of "baru lima bulan" (just 5 months). Each kodi, or dish, contains twenty skewers, and each skewer has four chunks — two pieces of meat, one piece of fat and then another piece of meat. It is grilled over wood charcoal until it is cooked between medium and well done; however it is possible to ask for medium rare. Sometimes the fat piece can be replaced with liver or heart or kidney. This is not marinated prior to grilling. On serving, it is accompanied by sweet soya sauce (medium sweetness, slightly thinned with boiled water), sliced fresh chilli, sliced raw shallots (eschalot), quartered green tomatoes, and steamed rice, and is sometimes garnished with fried shallots.

Sate Ambal
A satay variant from Ambal, Kebumen, Central Java. This satay uses a native breed of poultry, ayam kampung. The sauce is not based on peanuts, but rather ground tempeh, chilli and spices. The chicken meat is marinated for about two hours to make the meat tastier. This satay is accompanied with ketupat.

Sate Blora
A variant originating in Blora, located in Central Java. This variant is made of chicken (meat and skin) pieces that are smaller compared to the other variants. It is normally eaten with peanut sauce, rice, and a traditional soup made of coconut milk and herbs. Sate Blora is grilled in front of buyers as they are eating. The buyers tell the vendor to stop grilling when they are finished with their meal.

Sate Banjar
A variant of satay popular in South Kalimantan, especially in the town of Banjarmasin.

Sate Makassar
From a region in Southern Sulawesi, this satay is made from beef and cow offal marinated in sour carambola sauce. It has a unique sour and spicy taste. Unlike most satays, it is served without sauce.

Sate Buntel (Wrapped Satay)
A specialty from Solo or Surakarta, Central Java. It’s made from minced beef or goat (especially meats around ribs and belly area). The minced fatty meats are wrapped by thin fat or muscle membrane and wrapped around a bamboo skewer. The size of this satay is quite large, very similar to a middle eastern kebab. After being grilled on charcoal, the meat is separated from the skewer, cut into bite-size chunks, then served in sweet soy sauce and merica (pepper).

Sate Lilit
A satay variant from Bali, a famous tourist destination. This satay is made from minced beef, chicken, fish, pork, or even turtle meat, which is then mixed with grated coconut, thick coconut milk, lemon juice, shallots, and pepper. Wound around bamboo, sugar cane or lemon grass sticks, it is then grilled on charcoal.

Sate Pusut
A delicacy from Lombok, the neighboring island east of Bali. It is made from a mixture of minced meat (beef, chicken, or fish), shredded coconut meat, and spices. The mixture then is wrapped around a skewer and grilled over charcoal.

Sate Ampet
Another Lombok delicacy. It is made from beef, cow's intestines and other cow's internal organs. The sauce for sate ampet is hot and spicy, which is no surprise since the island’s name, Lombok Merah, means Red chili. The sauce is santan (coconut milk) and spices.

Sate Maranggi
Commonly found in Purwakarta, Cianjur and Bandung, the cities in West Java, this satay is made from beef marinated in a special paste. The two most important elements of the paste are kecombrang (Nicolaia speciosa) flower buds and ketan (sweet rice) flour. Nicola buds bring a unique aroma and a liquorice-like taste. It is served with ketan cake (jadah) or plain rice.

Sate Lembut
A rare satay recipe of the Betawi people. It is can be found in Jalan Kebon Kacang, Central Jakarta. The satay is made from minced beef mixed with shredded coconut and spices, wrapped around a flat bamboo skewer. Usually eaten with ketupat laksa betawi (Betawi style Laksa with ketupat glutinous compressed rice).

Sate Manis
Also a speciality from the Betawi people. It is also can be found in Jalan Kebon Kacang, Central Jakarta. The satay is made from slices of has dalam (tenderloin) the finest part of beef, marinated with sweet spices. Usually eaten with ketupat laksa betawi.

Sate Kambing (Goat satay)
A variant of satay popular in Java, made with goat, lamb or mutton meat. Different than other satay, sate kambing is not usually pre-seasoned or pre-cooked. Raw lamb is skewered and grilled directly on the charcoal. It is then served with sweet soy sauce, sliced shallots, and cut-up tomatoes. Since the meat is not pre-cooked, it is important to choose a very young lamb. Most famous vendor usually use lamb under three to five months old. Lamb from goat is also more popular than lamb from sheep due to milder flavor.

Sate Kerbau (Water buffalo satay)
A variant of satay popular in Kudus, where most Muslim believed that it is forbidden to eat beef in order to respect the Hindus. This satay is made with water buffalo meat. The meat is cooked first with palm sugar, coriander, cumin, and other seasoning until very tender. Some vendor choose to even grind the meat first in order to make it really tender. It is then grilled on charcoal, and the served with sauce made with coconut milk, palm sugar, and other seasoning. Traditionally, satay kerbau is served on a plate covered with teak wood leaves.

Sate Kelinci (Rabbit meat Satay)
This variant of satay is made from rabbit meat, a delicacy from Java. It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), peanut sauce, and sweet soy sauce. Rabbit satay usually can be found in mountainous tourist region in Java where locals breed rabbit for its meat, such as Lembang in West Java, Kaliurang in Yogyakarta, Bandungan and Tawangmangu resort in Central Java, also Telaga Sarangan in East Java.

Sate Burung Ayam-ayaman (Bird Satay)
The satay is made from gizzard, liver, and intestines of "Burung Ayam-ayaman" (a migrating sea bird). After being seasoned with mild spices and stuck on a skewer, this bird's internal organs aren’t grilled, but are deep fried in cooking oil instead.

Sate Bandeng (Milkfish Satay)
A unique delicacy from Banten. It is a satay made from boneless "Bandeng" (milkfish). The seasoned spicy milkfish meat is separated from the small bones, then placed back into the milkfish skin, clipped by a bamboo stick, and grilled over charcoal.

Sate Belut (Eel Satay)
Another Lombok rare delicacy. It is made from belut, a native small eel commonly found in watery rice paddies in Indonesia. A seasoned eel is skewered and wrapped around each skewer, then grilled over charcoal fire. So each skewer contains an individual small eel.

Sate Kuda (Horse meat Satay)
Locally known as "Sate Jaran", this is made from horse meat, a delicacy from Yogyakarta. It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), pepper, and sweet soy sauce.

Sate Bulus (Turtle Satay)
Another rare delicacy from Yogyakarta. It is a satay made from freshwater "Bulus" (softshell turtle). It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), pepper, and sweet soy sauce. Bulus meat is also served in soup or tongseng (Javanese style spicy-sweet soup).

Sate Ular (Snake Satay)
A rare and exotic delicacy usually founds in foodstalls specialize on serving exotic meats like snakes and lizards, such as the one founds near Gubeng train station in Surabaya, or near Mangga Besar and Tebet train station in Jakarta. It usually uses ular sedok (cobra) or sanca (python) meat. It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), pickles, pepper, and sweet soy sauce.

Sate Babi (Pork Satay)
Popular among the Indonesian-Chinese community, most of whom do not share the Muslim prohibition against pork. This dish can be found in Chinatowns in Indonesian cities, especially around Glodok, Pecenongan, and Senen in the Jakarta area. It is also popular in Bali which the majority are Hindus, and also popular in The Netherlands.

Sate Kulit (Skin Satay)
Found in Sumatra, this is a crisp satay made from marinated chicken skin.

Sate Ati (Liver Satay)
The satay is made from mixture of chicken liver, gizzard, and intestines. Usually gizzard is placed on the bottom, intestine on the center and liver or heart on the top. After seasoning, the internal organs are not fried or grilled, but are boiled instead. It’s not treated as a main dish, but often as a side dish to accompany Bubur Ayam (chicken rice porridge).

Sate Usus (Chicken Intestine satay)
This mildly marinated satay is usually fried, also as a side-dish to accompany bubur ayam.

Sate Babat (Tripes satay)
Mildly marinated and mostly boiled than grilled, usually served as a side-dish to accompany soto.

Sate Kerang (Shellfish satay)
Mildly marinated and boiled, also served as a side-dish to accompany soto.

Sate Telor Puyuh (Quail eggs satay)
Several hard-boiled quail eggs are put into skewers, marinated in sweet soy sauce with spices and boiled further, also served as a side-dish for soto.

Sate Telor Muda (Young egg Satay)
This satay is made from immature chicken egg (uritan) obtained upon slaughtering the hens. The immature eggs are boiled and put into skewers to be grilled as satay.

Sate Torpedo (Testicles Satay)
Satay made from goat testicles marinated in soy sauce and grilled. It is eaten with peanut sauce, pickles, and hot white rice.

Sate Susu (Milky Satay)
A tasty dish commonly found in Java and Bali, made from grilled spicy beef brisket with a distinctive milky taste, served with hot chilli sauce.

Sate Kere (Poorman's satay)
A cheap vegetarian satay made from grounded tempe from Solo city, served in peanut sauce and pickles. The word "kere" in Javanese language means "poor", originally was meant to provide the poor people of Java the taste of satay in affordable price, since meats is considered as a luxury in the past. Today, sate kere also provides intestine, liver and beef satays mixed with tempe ones.


Topic: Sate

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